Fertilization in plants – from flower to fruit
What is a composite fruit and what is a complex fruit? When is the fruit truly botanical? What parts of the flower participate in the creation of the fruit? Take fruit – and you’ll know why.
Most of the wild plants, as well as many cultural plants, bloom in spring and the fruit ripening season of most of them is summer. Much energy and resources are directed at plants to produce fruit, since these are, naturally, the continuity of the biological species, the next generation.
Below we will discuss fruit structures and how they are formed. The fruit is usually the product of fertilization in plants, and the fruit is created from the flower, a real fruit is created from an orchid in the flower, a fruit that is formed from parts other than the ovary, not a real fruit, botanically.
The flower is composed of cup leaves, petals, stamens and leaves
The sperm within the fruit will be in a convenient place for sprouting, each fruit plant with its characteristic texture and shape, adapted to its distribution methods.
It is worthwhile to go out to the garden and look at the pomegranate flowers that now ripen and turn into fruit. In the pomegranate, the basic part of the flower becomes red-shelled fruit, and then the red petals, which are wrinkled, fall into the seeds with a juicy, sweet shell that attracts birds. At the top of the fruit is a crown made of red cup leaves.
The fruit of the Senecio or the Decidter, on the other hand, is small and has tufts of hair, and is called Syriac. The seed of the Senecio is distributed in the wind due to its structure. The fruit is produced by the process of fertilization in flower plants, which involves the arrival of two male cells (gametes) into an ovary and is called double fertilization.
The seeds are formed in this process in the fruit. All seeds receive nutrients from the plant through the tubes passing through the young fruit. Within the sperm is the young embryo. It can be identified, for example, in pressed bean seeds that are split in half.
The semen is wrapped in a hard shell that sometimes prevents water from entering the seed or inhibits germination until the appropriate season (see Adaptation and Seasonal Articles in Garden and Landscape, Volume 7, 2002), while the ovary grows in size and becomes the young fruit, The fruit of poppy, the tomato and the gamba, as we have already noted, a fruit in which there are other parts besides the ovary is not a real fruit, according to the botanical definition.
Strawberries and apples
The fruit of the apple, for example, is not real, since apart from the ovary it also contains the basic flower parts, the flower tube. In the apple (and in pink) the bottom ovary, immersed in the basic part of the flower, is the stem of the flower (the flower pipe in the peanut). When the fruit of the apple ripens, they also massage parts of the flower stem and participate in building the fruit. In other fruits, other parts of the flower participate in the fruit. An interesting example of this is strawberries. The true fruits are walnuts, which are attached to the red “fruit” fruit, the small annoying brown stubble of the fruit. “With maturity, the strawberries undergo an interesting process in which the substrate, the basic part of the flower swells and the ovary. ?
In all fruits, the seeds cause ovarian growth by secretion of plant hormones. It is possible to demonstrate within this process field, but here the seeds cause an abnormal swelling of the substrate. Auxin is a plant material that is secreted in different parts of the plant and causes the formation of roots, directing sprouts in the direction of light and more. Here, the seeds secrete auxin that leads to the growth of the substrate.
In classical botany experiments, scientists removed all the strawberry seeds, and found that the substrate did not swell. When the seeds were partially removed, they did not swell and chewed on the side where they were removed. This proved that the seeds secrete material that leads to fruit growth. A similar process occurs in the apple: distorted apple fruit is the result of fruit in which some eggs are not fertilized, around the area where the eggs did not become seeds and there is no swelling and the fruit remains partially shrunken. In further experiments, they added to the platform the removal of artificial Auxin seeds, and of course it swelled.
Today it is used to produce fruit without seeds by giving an exosin. For example, create a cucumber and a tomato without seeds.
What is Pratenocarpia?
In nature, in some cases, fruit is naturally produced without fertilization, which is not possible in animals. The production of non-fertilizing fruit is called pratenocarpia. Pratenocarpia was the mermaid who could not catch Ulysses singing and thus remained a virgin. Carpus spread fruit. The peritoneal fruit is formed from the ovary and does not contain seeds. A well-known example is the banana and the pineapple. There are different types of Pratnocarpia in nature.
In citrus, seeds are sometimes created without fertilization and therefore are similar to any plant, as the sheep Dolly is a copy of “her mother”.
Dried and juicy
The strawberry fruit, which is built from a medium, is succulent, the substrate grows and becomes red, allowing the distribution of the fruit by the animals while the tiny real fruits are not damaged and can germinate in nature in the new place where the red fruit was brought. Other fruits are not succulent.
Two main fruit groups are distinguished by their water content: juicy fruit – usually with prominent colors and animals attracted to them. Dried fruits dry up to the ripening stage, and usually do not have prominent colors, some are distributed by the wind, some by sticking with thorns and in a variety of ways that will be detailed next time.
Settings for fruits
Fruit – a fruit produced from a large number of leaves that are separated by one flower (Nurit, raspberries, strawberries).
A composite fruit – one fruit that is formed from the ovaries of a few flowers that are based on a common base (strawberries, ficus figs, pineapples).
Anaba – juicy fruit mixed with small seeds scattered in the juicy fruit cavity (grapes, tomatoes, kiwi).
House of fruit – fruit with a juicy pulp, a center of hard stones (a core) and a single seed in it (peach, cherry, olive, apricot).
Pericarp – The fruit peel consists of three layers: a thin filmy peel (exocarp), an intermediate shell (mesocerp) and an inner layer – an endocerp in which sperm may be found.
Coconut – A unique kernel house, in which the seed contains seed with liquid endosperm (coconut milk)