Photosynthesis in plants
Why are green plants and what mechanism makes them bloom? What is the connection between light and germination and how does it affect the time of projection? What plants can follow the sun during the day to absorb the maximum amount of light?
The role of light in plant life is critical. A plant needs light energy that enables it to transform compounds that contain little energy – carbon dioxide and water – into energy-rich compounds like carbohydrates. This is the process of photosynthesis.
Chloroplast is the region in plant cells where light energy is absorbed. The green color of leaves – chlorophyll – is the main pigment absorbs light. A light particle hits chlorophyll and causes the electron inside it to rise to a higher energy level. Thus, a chain of operations begins, at which point the light energy turns into the chemical energy stored in the sugars produced by the plant.
Plants that grow in low light bones produce chlorophyll in a miniscule amount. These are etiolent plants. Their color is pale and they are long (due to their “attempt” to reach the light before the food reserves are finished) and have smaller leaves than normal. Without chlorophyll production, photosynthesis does not occur and the plant has no food. Therefore, plants should be grown in suitable light intensities. Shadow plants also need certain light packets to create food.
Oxygen is a byproduct of the photosynthesis process, created by splitting water molecules in certain plants, algae and bacteria and allowing respiration and other processes in living organisms. The oxygen produced by plants enables the existence of most of the world’s creatures.
In the autumn, the leaves of the pigment leaves are different from green. The green color of leaves does not disappear, it is returned into a tree trunk. This is expensive material for energy production and returning it to the tree saves on production costs. When the green color of the chlorophyll is restored, the other colors that are always present in her husband appear. These are the yellow, orange and red colors. These colors are stored in organelles called chromoplasts (chromo =.
The roles of light
In light of other roles in the life of a plant besides the assimilation: parts of a plant grow in the direction of light; Flowering time is determined by night length; The date of falling leaves depends on the length of the day; Seed germination is dictated by the amount of light reaching them; The following are some interesting phenomena in plants that are dictated by light.
Mimosa pudica plants react to the dark in a unique way: they fold over nightly, when the amount of light decreases. In the evening, plant cells undergo a process of exiting water from the base of the leaf in response to darkness and it collapses. The same process happens when you touch the leaves.
The leaves of the garden bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) move to a horizontal position on the day and to a perpendicular position at night. It is commonly accepted that this is related to sunlight. However, it was found that bean plants transferred to the conditions of weak light constant, continue to move the leaves for several days. These are internal rhythms of the plant, similar to animal rhythms and also exist in certain bacteria. The reason for rhythms is not fully known. They are called biological clocks.
The date of falling leaves is determined by the length of the day. When the days are shortened, a chemical reaction is created in the plant that encourages leaf loss. Trees of temperate origin that grow under street lamps are late for leaves, because they absorb light at night, meaning that the plant feels summer now, so the day is long (the night is still short) and there is no need to remove the leaves.
Some plant seeds germinate only in light. Other seeds sprout in the dark. There are seeds indifferent to the amount of light at the time of germination. A lot of seeds will sprout after a short enlightenment, while long enlightenment will hold them back. The ecological significance of this phenomenon is the possibility of partially covered seeds – not buried too deep but not completely exposed – to germinate.
Seeds of similar plant species may differ in their demand for light during germination. Primula obconica seed germination is accelerated by illumination, and the near germination of the genus Primula spectabilis is delayed by illumination.
Plants follow the length of the day and know when to bloom according to the length of the dark period. In short-day plants (those that bloom when the nights are long), such as chrysanthemum, flowering can be prevented by one-time illumination at night. In long day plants (those that bloom when the night is short), it is possible to encourage flowering by short enlightenment during the dark period, even if the day is too short for bloom.
Seeds of wild plants Spragula arvensis and Stellaria media do not need enlightenment while fresh. But after they are buried in the ground they will not germinate without light. This has ecological significance, and it prevents the germination of seeds that are buried too deep, because if they germinate, they will not succeed in growing.
The leaves of the Lupinus pilosus perform a daily movement that follows the course of the sun. So that the flat part of the leaf is always directed at the sun in most of its surface. This allows maximum light absorption for photosynthesis.
The phenomenon of the Helianthus annuus is known after the sun, as Helios (Helios =) indicates, in the base of the flower sting, glands that fill and emptify in the water and thus cause movement.
Leaves of tropical plants that grow in low light intensities are arranged on the stem so that they do not hide the light. This enables maximum utilization of light energy.
Trivia and numbers
1727 – is the year when a naturalist named Stefan Hales raised the idea that plants need light to feed them.
1845 – This year a German doctor named Mayer discovered that plants absorb the power of light and turn it into a chemical force.
250 billion tons – is the amount of sugar produced by plants worldwide each year.
200 grams – is the amount saved by the Taburitian plants for every gram of carbon dioxide they use in photosynthesis.
25 watts – this is the strength of a lamp, which shines for one minute at night, required to reject flowering in greenhouse hummus.
Seven hours – is the average period of time required for the sunflowers to move the inflorescence from the west, which came at sunset, back east even before the sun rose.
21 hours to 27 hours – is the natural cycle of movement saved in plants